Encarta/Culver Pictures








Great scientific theories do not usually conquer the world through being accepted by opponents who, gradually convinced of their truth, have finally adopted them. It is always rare to find a Saul becoming a Paul. What happens is that the opponents of the new idea finally die off and the following generation grows up under its influence.

Max Planck
1918 Nobel Prize Winner in Physics

Quotation from West, John Anthony, Serpent in the Sky, Julian Press, New York, N.Y., USA, 1987 Edition, p.12.


I couldn’t have found a better example for “kırk yıllık Yani, olur mu Kani?”
     –Doğan Türker.

The invention of other new theories regularly, and appropriately, evokes the same response from some of the specialists on whose area of special competence they impinge. For these men the new theory implies a change in the rules governing the prior practice of normal science. Inevitably, therefore, it reflects upon much scientific work they have already successfully completed. That is why a new theory, however special its range of application, is seldom or never just an increment to what is already known. Its assimilation requires the reconstruction of prior theory and the re-evaluation of prior fact, an intrinsically revolutionary process that is seldom completed by a single man and never overnight.

Kuhn, Thomas S.; The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, USA 1962, Second Edition, enlarged, 1970; p. 7

Physicists have come to see that all their theories of natural phenomena, including the ‘laws’ they describe, are creations of the human mind; properties of our conceptual map of reality, rather than of reality itself.

Capra, Fritjof; The Tao of Physics, 3rd ed., updated, Shambala, Boston, 1991, p. 287.

Theories are ways of looking which are neither true nor false, but rather clear and fruitful in certain domains, and unclear and unfruitful when extended beyond these domains.

Bohm, David; On Creativity, Routledge, London, 1998, p. 47